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Gordon, Diane File
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Miller, Grace H., nee Jeffrey and Campbell, Catherine Janet, nee Boyle

File consists of a recording of Grace Miller. Topics of the conversation include Queen's Math Dept. c. 1911; ready acceptance of Queen's graduates by other grad schools. Doctoral work as theoretical possibility, highly unusual; MA degrees more standard. Strong encouragement, lack of inhibiting sexual discrimination, in subject's education, family life; contrast with Queen's sexist discrimination against granddaughter as Med School applicant. Daughter's attendance at Queen's, determined by family loyalty, financial considerations. Queen's campus, 1911-14: 250 female student population, possibility of knowing everyone. Shock of gas and oil lighting in 'Old Residence', Earl Street, after Ottawa electricity. Acquaintance with future husband in tiny Queen's office shared by 8 mathematics instructors. Etta Newlands, female math instructor at Queen's during 1890s; increase in female employees at Queen's following WWI years, Charlotte Whitton era. 1976/77 as first year Queen's female freshman (54%) have outnumbered men. Candlelighting ceremony, dated back to period between 1914 and 1921. Levana Society as far more active than Arts Society male counterpart; Levana disciplinary Council. Alumnae Association's women's residence fund drive, organised by active Ottawa members (Marty, Muir, Shortt): clock system of contributions, rummage sales. Organisation of general Alumni Association. Residence Fund Treasurers Miss Redden, May Chown. Aletta Marty, 'the most important person I ever met': exceptional abilities as French tutor; concern for women's higher education, women's place in society; recall by Queen's for Ban Righ sod-turning ceremony, honorary degree; death on return from Africa; Alumnae Marty Scholarship fund. Technical job, Topographical Surveys Dept., Ottawa, till 1921. Jeanne LeCaine Agnew, Queen's math grad, employed by McGill for WWII bomb research; frustrating restriction on early writings as classified information, thus unpublishable. Subject's return to Queen's for post-war celebrations: return of Grant Hall to university by army; huge convocation exercises; employment by Queen's Math Dept., hard-pressed to staff veteran-packed engineering courses. Sudden retirement from executive work; previous extensive involvement (past President) with Queen's Alumnae. Role of Alumnae apart from General Alumni Association; blow felt by Levana Society merger with Arts and Science Society. Alumnae role advancing women for executive positions. Admiration, dubious regard, for Charlotte Whitton; Whitton as subject of excellent radio programme; horror at Kay Whitton's comments on Charlotte. Omission of Whitton Hall ('I fear it was on purpose') on Queen's campus. Social evenings in Grant Hall. Drinking on campus as reported fact, never personally witnessed. Residence rules, 'made to be broken'; comparative boarding-house freedom. Subject's Math major, Physics minor; lecture/lab hours. Adequacy of Grant Hall for Convocation purposes; present-day arena-capacity requirements. Annexation of private houses for residence purposes; Observatory building used by Math students. Side Two is a recording of Catherine Campbell. Topics of the conversation include position as Chief Social Worker, Children's Section, Clarke Institute (Toronto), since 1966; 15 years' previous work with Toronto Psychiatric Hospital. Initial high proportion of children patients giving way to high proportion of adolescents. Recent shift within multi-disciplined Institute to cross­discipline expansion, based on specialist's desire to broaden role. Subject's original home in Weston, Ont.; juggled high school education due to crowding difficulties, quibbling over Toronto area boundaries. Attendance at Queen's, encouraged by family situation: responsibilities on farm too great after mother's death, family insistence that subject escape home pressures. Education as family priority, concern of musically-educated mother; freedom to choose place of study despite financial considerations. Queen's general Arts programme, subject's Psychology major. Enjoyment of Queen's: women students (300) as 25% of student population; participation in baseball team. Leanings toward social work encouraged by summer camp employment, influential Public Health aunt who praised social work, discouraged nursing. Lack of Sociology faculty at Queen's, extra course required for entrance to U of T MSW programme 10 years later. Position with Children's Aid (1947-9), 'great fun': working out of Timmins to Hearst, James Bay; colourful temporary child abandonment case, regular abandonment of children during blueberry-picking season. Interlude of marriage, period of psychometrical work in Toronto schools, 1937-47. Transfer to Toronto Psychiatric Hospital(government institute),1949; transfer to Clarke Institute (private board), 1966. Effect of financial cutbacks on subject's work: staff decrease from 9 to 3 since 1966; less administrative work, some teaching, more clinical duties. Change in patient problems: 1949-66 mostly neurotic cases (i.e. isolated character problem) from middle class, 2-parent families; since 1966, largely multi-problem cases (involving total character, more difficult to analyse) from single-parent families; wider class spread since OHIP subsidy. Upsurge in multi-problem patients perhaps related to upsurge in child-psychology specialists dealing with neurotic difficulties. Difficulties faced by single parents, single-parent offspring; problems caused by pressure on women to take outside work. Subject's training, sense of humour, as aids to perspective; ability to be compassionate at work, shed problems before going home. Enjoyment of many interests, hobbies; domestic responsibility for 90-year-old aunt. Friendships in and out offield, particularly with Timmins people and Queen's grad Martha Sheppard. Division of working women into three groups: bright, educated, professional women who want to work and therefore should; secretarial-level workers who often wish not to work, feel they must, yet can't afford acceptable mother­substitutes, and therefore shouldn't work; mothers who find children trying and need work as a reassurance of personal adequacy. Opinion that children need one-to-one care till at least age two. Younger Clarke workers' affinity with adolescent patients, helpful so long as they don't over-identify; subject's preference for child-patient work. Clarke day­treatment programme for children up to twelve.

Miller, Grace H.

Pitt, Jean, nee McLaughlin

File consists of a recording of Jean Pitt. Topics of the conversation include travel in South America following husband's retirement (1932); surfeit of European travel, desire to witness 'Darwin country', Indian culture of Peru. Contribution of native intractability to present-day social failure. Train ride through Andes mountains; juxtaposition of old agricultural methods with new. Cultural sidelights: Indian habit of working barefoot in cold weather; Indian worship of Catholic god on Sunday, native gods on weekdays; Indian features on Catholic statues donated by natives; Brown Derby Indians, Le Pas. Five-day tour of Galapagos islands. Position as University Women's Club representative to Niagara Falls Local Council of Women (WWII). LCW aim to improve society through agitation for better laws; rejection of women's usual role as petty fund-raisers; regular representations to Cabinet members. LCW membership, skimmed from wide variety of local women's groups. Women's former lamentable devotion to social fund-raising activities, failure to grasp importance of active legislature in effecting democratic change; similar failure of today's citizens to communicate with elected representatives. Position as head of various LCW committees (e.g. Economics Committee). French/German degree at Queen's; liking for languages, belief in multilingualism, support of bilingual immersion courses at public school level (why fuss over what other countries take for granted?). Concern that people are led to socialism by need, not conviction; leaders' responsibility for making a free system work in advance of popular desperation; lack of free speech in Communist countries as a symptom of insecurity. LCW positions as Corresponding Secretary, President. LCW, YWCA Women's Forum study of Rowell-Sirois Report ('Canada's first effort at revising the Constitution'), typical of women's political concern during 1930s. Concensus of University Women's Club on practical categorization of unemployed citizens. Quarrel with post-WWII government measures requiring women to surrender paid jobs; awareness (economic injustice aside) of other avenues of fulfilment. Role of remuneration in building self-confidence, self­respect (interviewer); subject's contention that qualified women will find work, others needn't lapse into sense of victimization. Failure of subject's generation to throw off Depression attitude to role of sexes: tendency to blame women for holding jobs in time of unemployment, to hold mother responsible for children in equal-parenting relationship. WWII position as industrial personnel selector (National Selective Service); Niagara Peninsula as WWII industrial centre of Canada. Laziness factor in 1970s unemployment situation, brought out in all generations by extravagant welfare system; lack of sufficient contrast between working rewards, welfare rewards. Economic problems of high Canadian wage scale, low production rate. Benefit of health insurance programmes, despite problems of administration. Termination (by NSS work) of 10-year participation in Women's Council; University Women's Club membership dropped to accommodate retirement travel, recently resumed. Success of retirement plans; visit to newly independent New Guinea (1975, Queen's Principal Watts aiding in plan of constitution), observation of white-native relations; satisfaction over peaceful race relations (black and white policemen holding hands) in Kenya, 1973; English influence apparent in Kenyan dress, speech. Interviewer's experience in Nigeria. Subject's farm origins in Dundela (near Morrisburg), home of the Macintosh apple; relation to Maclntoshes through grandmother; plans to attend Queen's made during tight Depression years. Exclusion of women students from Sciences, permitted as options. Interviewer's interest in May Chown; subject's uwc acquaintance with nephew Lorne Pierce's sister.

Pitt, Jean

Powell, Mabel

File consists of a recording of Mabel Powell. Topics of the conversation include residence in family home buiIt by grandfather (1860s). Early widowhood of mother, grandmother; educated mother's successful efforts to further children's education. Father's amiable position as CPR conductor (Prescott to Ottawa) in heyday of travel by rail; strong political appetite, whetted by acquaintance with political passengers. Teaching career adopted by subject, subject's sisters. Moderns and History BA programme (Queen's); outstanding professors Campbell, MacGillivray, Morrison, McNeill. Ambition to attend Queen's Faculty of Education programme, barred by age (under 19); acceptance of mysterious offer from Congregational nuns, Ottawa, to pass time by tutoring final year students, while undertaking personal study of painting, music. Attendance Faculty of Ed.; desire to enrol in BA programme, prompted by envy of student environment. Enrolment with elder sister, supported by mother despite financial drain; living-in, boarding-out arrangements (Brock St.); financial impossibility of post-graduate study. Participation of Queen's students in WWI: enlistment of all eligible men; employment of women knitting, rolling bandages,etc.; feeling that campus women's efforts exceeded those of civilian counterparts. Pressure on men to enIist; sympathy of women for fighting men; shock of death reports, often seemingly immediate. Lack of resentment felt towards WWII; local concern to aid Britain as part of the Empire: absence of pacifism, political objection. Teaching career, 1917-23; enjoyment of Stirling, dislike of Trenton; Trenton as a railway town, breeding children without academic ambition. Application to Goderich Collegiate, employment 1923-53; decision to specialise in French, prompted by principal's abolition of German Dept. preceding WWII; year in Paris, 1936-37, to upgrade qualifications. Conversational French classes (Alliance Française) with cultural outings, Paris: year's study, Sorbonne. Premonitions of war in France; anxiety in both Queen's and Sorbonne situations lest programme be halted because of war. Cultured aspect of Paris boarding house: tapestried living-room, leather-bound library (alice blue with silver embroidery), grand piano played by wife in style of dress attuned to music. Paris trip as subject's first venture abroad, despite frequent travel in Canada; elegant ship travel New York to Paris. Premature retirement to Prescott (1953) to keep company with sister. Affection during school years for classmate Charlotte Whitton; Whitton's assurance of her own intelligence, expectation of tribute to it, as her final undoing; portrait as a strong, aggressive student, resented by some as overbearing.//Whitton's poor behaviour at 50th class reunion, 1967 (previous statement to class committee that as most outstanding graduate, she should lead festivities; defeat in favour of class President; petty annoyance displayed throughout evening); reel of supposedly humorous after-dinner anecdotes, venomously aimed at class members; subject's hurt as victim of 'Catholic' barbs (religious division in Whitton family as perhaps bearing on behaviour), feeling that Charlotte had changed, that this was beneath her. Development of Charlotte's interest in social problems as secretary to local Cabinet member; role as delegate (often chairman) to international committee meetings on children's status, held in Switzerland. Subject's encounter with Greek embassy official in Paris, previously acquainted with Whitton as UN delegate in Switzerland; fascinated assessment of Whitton as 'without doubt the cleverest person I have ever met' regarding constitutional arrangements for children's benefits. Whitton's justified sense of pride, change for the worse in social behaviour: experience as Ottawa mayor, lack of caring domestic relationships, falling-off in close friendships as possible reasons why. Whitton's close friendship (unindentified) with similar personality at Queen's. Subject's fortunate scholarly bent towards teaching; teaching as sole career option at time of graduation.

Powell, Mabel

MacCallum, Elizabeth Pauline

File consists of a recording of Elizabeth MacCallum. Topics of the conversation include birth in Turkey (1895); parents as Congregational missionaries to Turkey, Istanbul. Transfer with family to Kingston; education at KCVI, Queen's University. Teaching in prairie provinces to support education (1915-17); 'glorious' teaching years in Dawson City, Yukon (1919-21). Post­graduate study, Columbia University: political science and history, 1921-22,1924-25. Invitation to join Canadian Dept. of External Affairs during WWII shortage of Officers; status as Principal Clerk, despite Officer's duties; 'just and civilised' conduct of Dept. administrators in permitting temporary war-time staff to sit for Officer's examinations following WWII. Initiation of US Foreign Policy Association Research Dept; employment of subject, recommended by Columbia professors. Political science as a not unusual field for women at Columbia; 'scintillating' quality of women's minds, challenging common room atmosphere. Contrast with Queen's campus during WWI years: then 'we just pushed ourselves through from day to day, doing the things that had to be done.' National Service aspect of prairie teaching assignments; co-operation of teachers in local farm work. Educational programme of Foreign Policy Association: weekly debates of current headline issues by international policy­makers, in participating us cities. Charged atmosphere of debates, precautions taken against violence; attraction for intellectual elite. Participation of Canadian Undersecretary of State Dr. Skelton in debate on Italian fascism. Subject as FPA research writer (1925-31), preparing monographs on current affairs; gratitude for 'ideal' instructions to be un­biased, versed in all points of view. Responsibility for sending monograph draft version to outside readers of opposed convictions for pre-publication criticism; opportunity to help choose, devise topics. FPA open membership, distinguished subscription to monographs, weekly News Bulletin; production of 26 monographs per year by 6-person research staff, highly stimulating 'hard plugging'. Retirement to Uxbridge, Canada (1931); 2-acre market-gardening venture, sustained till exhaustion of funds. Subject's belief that life should be balanced between intellectual and physical activities; alternating pattern of own Iife; invitation from World Peace Foundation (1935) to write Rivalries in Ethiopia. Travelling lectureship based on Ethiopian research; single night's pay ($50) surpassing most lucrative annual market­ gardening income ($40), spent on barrel-sprayer for apples. Dept. of External Affairs work as newspaper-clipping service, research writer (c. WWII). Appreciation of civil servant's protective anonymity: 'It gives you very much greater freedom to do good work if you’re anonymous.' Careers of Dept. associates: educator, diplomat Margaret Meagher (Canada's first woman ambassador);//Dorothy Burwash, 'very very courageous, very very brilliant, very very modest woman'; Agnes Ireland, seriously affected by dust-storm car accident in India. Alison Hardy's article on women's contribution to Dept. of External Affairs (International Perspectives , 1977). Hard-working schedule of Dept. members: retirement habit of dropping in on old colleagues as a form of sabotage, avoided by subject. Subject's posting to Lebanon (1954-56), in charge of opening Canadian legation. Position as technical adviser to Canadian delegations to UN General Assemblies, World Health Assembly; assignment to Canadian Embassy, Athens (1951), writing political dispatches for absent Ambassador. Particulars of Lebanese mission. Diffuse nature of daily work abroad, feeling that matters interrupted each other; preference for concentrated UN activity, where work seems to have immediate bearing. living quarters near University during FPA years, chosen for proximity to International House; Middle Eastern intellectuals' habit of taking coffee with subject before evening study, discussing international affairs. Ideal nature of Dept. of External Affairs work: payment for most desired occupation, permission to specialize in Middle Eastern affairs; all-absorbing intellectual life in contrast with Uxbridge period. Subject's 45-year deaf spell; vital importance of Uxbridge years after constant strain of deafness in New York. Consideration shown by country people to deaf neighbour, not afforded by urban associates. Restoration of hearing by ear operations. Sacrifice of marriage, as strain of conversation would have proved intolerable. Vivid description of deaf conversation as nervous torture, the body 'like a wired grand piano pulled to the utmost … each sound ·like a hammer hitting … everywhere.' Unforgettable 'healing' period in Uxbridge. Improved methods of teaching children to cope with, overcome deafness. Current volunteer service in Ottawa Civic Hospital, preference for geriatric ward; ironic final education in finger-alphabet (for conversation with deaf-mute patient) having omitted to learn it for her own sake. Praise for classmate Charlotte Whitton's able, responsible activity at Queen's and continuing look-out for Queen's women grads in the job market. Subject's current desire to stop writing, start working with people: aim of hospital work to help even old people to realize full potential.

MaCallum, Elizabeth Pauline

Ryan, Kathleen, nee Whitton

File consists of a recording of Kathleen Ryan. Topics of the conversation include interview occasioned by 55th anniversary of CFRC (Canada's First Rugby Club) radio station. CFRC as oldest continuously broadcasting station in Canada, originally run and financed by Queen's students: set-up of Prof. Jemmett's equipment on kitchen table in Fleming Hall; 'CFRC, Queen's University: 100 beautiful watts!'. CFRC as Science men's preserve: Arts men tolerated when programming began; women virtually banned. Expansion, help from Margaret Angus, Student Club, and university. Subject's honorary cutting of cable for CFRC stereo broadcasting, recently introduced. 'When the lceworms Nest Again', classic Canadian song played by CFRC during technical difficulties, also by country music band 'The Happy Wanderers' to serenade opening of Upper Canada Village. CFRC as example of Queen's tradition, 'Go ahead if you're broke, you're still going to come through'. Subject's infiltration of CFRC on arm of male student. Science students' aversion to Economics students' use of Fleming Hall. Major fight between Arts and Science men at entrance to Kingston Hall; voluntary parting of bloody sea allowing Dr. Watson to pass through; subject's belief in healthy brawling as opposed to vindictive physical violence. Children's inability to grasp the import of firearms; bearing of practical use of guns on the ethics of firearms. Subject's fascinated observation of creation of Upper Canada Village; sad fate of outhouse-style coverings for anachronistic firehydrants, removed by authorities. 'Happy Wanderers', Ryans' CFRC band, nucleus of later Family Brown Band, CJOH.CFRA beginnings 31 years ago, purchase of second farm-transmitter site necessitated by 'political skulduggery'; selection of Ottawa site, through 5-year survey, as city with poorest radio service in Canada (private license used by owner as erratic hobby). Mistrust of Ryans as outsiders, interfering with station purchase. Household moves, occasioned by husband's communications career. Subject's original choice of Medicine at Queen's, attracted by status; distressing experience of animal dissection; switch to Economics. Recognition of ambition to make money; triumph in financial deal where buyer assumed he was getting the best of an ignorant lady. Present­day retirement funds, pensions, as questionable investments because of inflation; basis of inflation is paid lack of production (UIC). Younger generation's verbal dependence on cliches. Subject's Florida farm investment (location influenced by price of fuel). Ryan horse stables; switch from saddle-horses to hackneys; 'courage, confirmation, coordination' criteria in hackneys; 'period' affair with carriages (George VI lady's phaeton, Sir Vivian Gooch mail phaeton, Viceroys for show).Subject's rugged conscience with regard to extravagant lifestyle. Forfeited option on historic Billings estate, lost through intention to erect apartment building, townhouses; opposition by city planning board, residents' association. Billings' Georgian colonial home, bought by city unable to maintain it; pioneer cemetery, now degraded for lack of care. Billings' history: Lemira as original Canadian business woman, exemplary accountant. Meeting with residents' association, seen from subject's humorous, indignant, scornful point of view. Involvement in Ontario Heritage Foundation preservation of historic buildings. Ironic preservation of ordinary local homes at expense of priceless Billings 'gem'. Subject's sports interests at Queen's; secretarial work for Prof. Gordon, convenor of immigration for lODE; proofreading work for visiting professor; tutoring work in Political Science, Shakespeare.//Virtue as no guarantee of success; unrewarded devotion of many civiI servants. Unaccountable differences in personal ambition: subject's pursuit of exciting prospects ('this margin fades forever and forever when I move'); nephew's insistence on small-scale comfort. Replacement of powerful radio tower used by Ryans since 1946 by Ryan transmitter (1968), rivalled in Canada only by CN tower but with wider applications. Sale of radio stations, retention of transmitter; foreseen subjection of rival broad­ casters, forced to lease space in Ryan transmitter (advantageous to poorer stations such as Carleton). Cablevision companies; interest in satellite broadcasting, not feasible because of competition. Subject's broadcasting experience: 'What's Your Trouble'. show, with woman psychologist Wasserman; Wassermans as German refugees, husband's excellent novels. Enjoyment of 'Farmer's Notebook' report, given something to talk about; hatred of fabricating useless copy; preference for brevity, under 12-minute broadcasting. Editorial manipulation of hot-line shows. Family background: 4 of 8 siblings died young; notorious Canadian infant mortality rate c. 1919, connected with lack of physical confirmation between Celts and Gaels. Liking for Catholicism: Irish-Catholic mother; Catholic husband; lovely experience of convent schooling (Renfrew County). Emphasis on clothing in schools; interviewer's memory of 'Kitten sweater' Toronto snobbery; psychological implications of blue-jean trend. Positive sartorial impression made by men at current Convocation, in contrast with feminine impact. Hard prospects for today's graduates. Views on Canadian unity: no need to preserve French-English Canadian unity, which has never existed; no need to reduce a country to its weakest link. Notion of two founding races 'a damned bit of nonsense'. Goyer's 'French commonwealth'; politicians' insidious desire for French supremacy; expectation of increased difficulty, violence. Injustice of Quebec-Ontario industrial relations, Quebec licensing restrictions. Advantage taken of bulk-restricted Ontario milk shippers by infiltrating Quebec merchants. Dr. Deutsch's comment (Class of '26 Reunion) that 1926 graduates remain unsurpassed; subject's corroborating list of outstanding women (Olive Zeron, Jean Simmons, Marie Stock, Mary Rowland, Frances MacCallum, Janie Anderson, Margaret Guthrie). Reid MacCallum as outstanding Professor of Philosophy.

Ryan, Kathleen

Penwarden, May B., nee Hiscock

File consists of a recording of May Penwarden. Topics of the conversation include Queen's graduation, 1908; teaching career at KCVI, Sydenham High School; marriage to insurance salesman, 1921; stepdaughters. Subject's current age (91), centenarian sister; enjoyment as student, 'full of pep', of skating, dancing; sense of humour as key to longevity. Family history. (Entrance of sister, brief biographical quiz: position as teacher on Wolfe Island, in Cataraqui School, Kingston; marriage to Queen's graduate Presbyterian minister; co­residence with subject.) Subject as oldest living Queen's graduate. Brother as Queen's graduate medical doctor. Winona Stewart. Lack of serious motive for attending Queen's; enjoyment of study, but not for its own sake. Receipt of frequent letters from Queen's, soliciting financial contributions. Easy attitude to widening female career spectrum. Eyesight difficulties, arthritis. Observation that today women meet more often for discussion; formerly, even during wartime, women were separated. Lifelong church involvement; wonder how modern people survive without benefit of clergy.// Subject's lack of feminine, political, self-consciousness while at Queen's; lack of interest in Alumni Society. Memories of teaching, students; Helen Campbell; widow of Principal Wallace, now living with subject in Extendicare. Interviewer's account of Alice Chown, mention of Chown diaries; subject's wonderment at other women's 'branching out', own situation of being 'kept in'. Belief in civic voting; lack of interest, at the time, in women's suffrage movement. Dislike of mentioning Queen's connection in retirement home, for fear of being thought snobbish. Subject as outdoors person; lack of interest in reading. 'Honoration' system of public scholarships: subject's first-year tuition fees awarded by post office nomination, paid by Kingston businessman. Subject's happy family, early desire to marry; age difference between self and husband. Subject as car owner, driver, c. 1925; sister as pioneer woman bicyclist in Kingston. Interviewer's account of Mallorytown, settled by disgraced English persons who had married beneath themselves.

Penwarden, May B.

Royce, Jean (V: Gordon, 31 October, 1977)

File consists of a recording of Jean Royce. Topics of the conversation include Queen's graduates Jessie and Dorothy Dyde, both graduates of Smith College, both librarians. Powerful Queen's woman librarian Laura Saunders, 'a pillar'; Queen's former librarian to the King of England Mr. Kite, untrained by today's standards but with very special knowledge of books, 'an air of heraldry'. Laura Saunders' sister Elsie (Hilda Laird's replacement at League of Nations Library, Geneva). Laird's appointment to Queen's as 25 year-old Dean of Women, accompanied by pleasant mother ('a very attractive pair'); Alumnae eagerness to make the appointment; exacting nature of residential Dean's work. Subject's graduation from Queen's in 1930, employment at Ontario Ladies' College, Whitby, invitation to assist ailing Queen's Registrar Alice King. Boarding house residence at Queen's, 1925; contrast with formality of residence life in Ban Righ,1927. Approval of period of employment between high school and university, to define one's interests, develop maturity. Subject's love of books, major in English and History; great interest in mediaeval period, thwarted by limitation of Queen's courses to Canadian history; appreciation of Chaucer. Responsibility for religious knowledge classes at Ontario Ladies' College; previous bible study courses at camp, attendance at Queen's Theological classes; 'meaty' lectures of Queen's Theology Principal Kent, very clear and informative, with no opportunity for questioning, discussion; limitations of early lecture methods, seen not as 'a round table for ideas' but as 'a presentation of results of thought'; similarity of Shakespeare courses under George Herbert Clarke (who sold students his lectures in printed form for a nickel each). Compulsory lecture attendance. Summer employment as Queen's student documenting material in basement of Queen's library. Undergraduate employment in Reference Department under Miss Rayson; Rayson's recommendation of subject to Registrar Alice King, 'a good worker - and she's not particularly interested in men'.//Enjoyment of Alice Chown's diary; Chown's nephew, daughter, in Toronto. Disbelief of story that Chown was paid during Depression not to stay in Kingston. Appointment of Dr. McNeill (always lamenting his surrender of teaching) by Queen's A.Y. Chown, fearful that something dreadful would befall unless he was succeeded by Dr. McNeill. Alice Chown's pseudonymous publications. Mrs. Adam Shortt (Smith), early female medical doctor, graduate of Queen's. Interviewer's reflections on Alice Chown's exploration of 'ideas of alternative marriage styles'. Advancement of women during WWI : sobering reflection on social advantages derived from war (can we avoid war?), periods of social guilt followed by periods of atonement; witness to prompt German efforts at post-war reconstruction (1947), necessity for immediate action, no time for regret, reflection. Identification of 12th century as western history's most civilized period; tremendously cultured contributions at present day of women in Switzerland, possibly a peak in history of female civilization; 'Golden Age' of Queen's during 1950s,under Dr. Mackintosh. Vindication of homosexuals as useful citizens during WWI, similar vindication of women; subject's accepting acquaintance with homosexual students at Queen's.

Jean Isabel Royce

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