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Queen's University Archives Gordon, Diane File
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Roberts, Mabel

File consists of a recording of Mabel Roberts. Topics of the conversation include confusion of subject's sense of time, living in old age home: lack of significant events to mark passage of time; dull, merely routine nature of daily activities. Attendance at Queen's, 1914-17; Hen Coop residence, Clergy St. at Earl. Brockville childhood; father's position as railroad yard foreman. Glass candlestick, brought from Ireland by immigrant grandmother. Family photograph; younger sister's 8-year employment with Mayo Clinic. Mother's frailty. Subject's ambition to teach since childhood; unexpected university entrance, willingly funded by family scarcely able to afford it. Thirty-five year teaching career at collegiate level; position as Head of English Dept., Brockville collegiate. Deeply felt desire to teach; desire for better position, salary, leading to enrolment at Queen's. Subject's current age (86) ; Queen's associates Jessie Dyde, Mabel Powell. Segregation of sexes in Catholic separate school education, instruction of sexes by separate Orders. Shock to subject of 'beautiful' convent's slow obsolescence, renovation as modern condominium. Subject's welcome into co-ed public collegiate, fortunate relations with principal. Absence of tension between Protestants, Catholics. Lack of distinction as continuation school teacher prompting desire for university education. Recent gift of book 'from a student who remembers'. Close friendship with Charlotte Whitton at Queen's; picture of Whitton 'at loose ends' as rooming house student, using subject's residence room as home base. Relations between Kay and Charlotte Whitton; division in family religious upbringing. Summer employment as prairie schoolteacher; love of prairies. Financial responsibility for family since father's early death; support of brother through MD programme at Queen's; lack of funds for travel. Reading habits; dependence on reading to pass time in old age. Appreciation of Dr. Husband's encouragement of study, teaching efforts at Brockvilie Collegiate. Pleasant living conditions, staff, at Fulford Home for the Aged; absence of other Queen's graduates, 'No Queen’s grads have grown old in Brockville.'//Aunt's dressmaking and millinery shop in New York state; mother's pampered role as adored half-sister (photograph), subject's childhood fascination with mother's wardrobe. Parents' generosity, willingness to self-sacrifice for children's needs; encouragement of subject's university ambitions. Courses of life pursued by sisters; subject's lack of temptation to marry, never having met a suitable husband. Satisfaction with past life, desire not to live much longer: acceleration of loneliness once friends have gone. Summer holidays passed pleasantly near Brockville. Majority of female teachers in subject's day; uncontested selection of subject as Dept. Head. Hateful responsibility as elected female officer for keeping women students at Queen's to the 'straight and narrow'. Disappointing class reunion c.1920, lack of interest in reunions since; Queen's lack of prominence in subject's life now; special quality of university life which distinguishes it in the memory of those who have experienced it. Charlotte Whitton's unrestrained sense of humour, warmth of friendship, ignorance of prospects. Interviewer's account of Elizabeth MacCallum. Opinion that the excellence of female students in the 1900s resulted from their being a select few. Friend's opinion that friendship with Whitton reflected ill on subject's social status, respectability. Recollection of Min Gordon.

Roberts, Mabel

Wallbridge, Ruth C.

File consists of a recording of Ruth Wallbridge. Topics of the conversation include subject as Queen's student c.1910. Family background: Wallbridge home, farm, tenant houses; raising hops. Parents' early deaths; adoption of subject by aunt, uncle. Education of mother, aunt (Albert College, Belleville); mother's desire for daughter's education. Influence of strong-willed grandmother. Carpenter uncle's farm inheritance, separation from wife unwilling to do farm-wife's work. Accident in family home causing fire: subject rescued by grandmother, goods saved by quick-witted schoolmaster's student rescue­team. Residence in Kingston YWCA. Uncle's offer to pay subject if she would stay home; working fruit business at home for 10 years, finishing degree with extramural courses. Uncle's death; farm rental, division of house with tenants; tenant problems. Subject's poems, literary interests; poem addressed to Flora MacDonald, 'an ideal person that I would certainly like to see as leader of our country'. Elderly people's reading difficulties. Subject's opinion of women's lib movement; personal happiness sharing single life with a female friend; importance of independent role choice; admiration for grandmother as dominant, fulfilled wife and homemaker. Pressure on women to attract men; desirability of bridal state, inability of many women to see farther. Happy inclusion of subject and friend Marie in brother's extended family. Interest in Christian Children's Fund of Canada. Dislike of urban standard-of-living pressures; sympathy for Margaret Trudeau. Interviewer's account of Flora MacDonald. Identification with rural life, rejected option of marrying city lawyer. Opinion that money should be spent on something more meaningful than attractive clothes or furniture.

Wallbridge, Ruth C.

Wight, Dorothy J.

File consists of a recording of Dorothy Wight. Topics of the conversation include family background in northern Canada, transfer from settlement to settlement. Father's government career, current work with North West Territories Housing Corporation. Liking for isolated settlement life, plans to live and work up north; aim to work with government Finance Dept., door to any career she chooses. Definition of northern settlement status, hamlet status: government, population, types of employment. Appalling state of formal education in NWT; subject as sole university student from her settlement, own exceptional education through Ontario correspondence courses; combined correspondence and regular school­ work. Family plans for subject's university attendance, necessary transfer to western Arctic for schooling beyond Grade 8. Poor quality of teaching. Correspondence course (Economics) from Queen's while awaiting personal readiness to move south, encounter Queen's, Kingston. NWT usual pattern of correspondence courses from Alberta, sudden transfer from settlement population (300) to U.of Alberta student population (30,000). Choice of Queen's based on smaller size, vivid praise of former students (especially geologists). Subject's Ontario correspondence-school background. Mother's New Brunswick origins, clerical training, northern marriage. Subject's social ostracization as daughter of government representative; community jealousy of father's status, authority. Self-reliance, enjoyment of north as open country; appreciation of freedom from social pressures, truly spare time. Opinion that those who set good examples in personal lives do most to stimulate positive social change; mistrust of reformist zeal. Hobbies.//Possibility of theatre company tours up north. Social structure in northern communities: established whites; transient whites; religious older generation of Eskimo; confused younger generation of Eskimo, victims of unfortunate schooling system. Influx of government schools in mid-1950s; hiring through Ottawa of unstable, reformist 'border-line crazies', unsuited to gently revolutionize a Stone Age culture. Teachers' attempts to alienate Eskimo children from parents by mocking native customs; breakdown of Eskimo nomadic lifestyle; pressure to prevent children from speaking Eskimo; helpful missionary work instructing children in syllabics. Ignorant Ottawa statement that Eskimo are largely illiterate (i.e. cannot speak English); near-total literacy rate in own language; subject's tentative desire to learn Eskimo (5 basic languages, hundreds of dialects). Influence of southern immigrants on job situation: recent reverse-discrimination system favouring Eskimo over whites, southern whites over local inhabitants; experience of two white northern males, unable to find work till they applied as southerners 'with significant northern experience'. Assurance of work in own field through scarcity of suitable applicants; plans to consider marriage, children, only after establishing career; school system as deterrent to parental aspirations. Provincial government clampdown restricting Ontario correspondence courses to Ontario residents. Need for stable middle-aged teaching population up north; strong bond between children and home settlements, boarding-school as a non-viable alternative. High proportion of drop-outs, professional high school students; monetary support for serious students. Unlikelihood of reversion to simple life, despite problems of social change: lifestyle of original Eskimo simply too grim.

Wight, Dorothy J.

Munnings, Gladys R.

File consists of a recording of Gladys Munnings. Topics of the conversation include TAPE ONE Women's experiences of anonymity: subject's anonymous Ministry of Education pubIications, quoted at length without acknowledgement. Social problem of persons easily, unconsciously taking advantage of resource staff, supportive personalities. Claim of Minister of Education Mr. Wells, in face of public outcry, to represent entire community in Ministry procedures (hence change in Ministry policy to acknowledge contributors, proving his claim); subject's experience that public had been well represented under Robarts in Ministry affairs, without being informed of it. Public ignorance of Ministry of Education's leading role in appointing women to senior positions, reorganizing departments the better to serve changing times. Likelihood of men's successes receiving more and better publicity; women's former acceptance of anonymity since in quiet they contributed most, without expenditure of energy fighting male-oriented society. Motivation to accept position as Inspector of secondary schools (Toronto 1956: though very happy as Windsor school teacher, tempted not to) by reflection on discriminatory sexist rationale (much mooted in 1950s) 'women don't accept leadership opportunities': indication by sympathetic male Ministry superintendant, next candidate on list is male. Painful experience as teacher in 1930s, 1940s, watching excellent women teachers being kept in place, men only appointed to higher positions (the British tradition). Efforts as secondary school inspector to encourage women to apply for higher posts; negative responses based on a) enough work already (at school and at home); b) distaste for required travel, how could she stand travelling she did? (loves it, though requires stamina); c) fear, either of inadequacy to live up to personal ideals of higher offices (in profession to which they were wholeheartedly dedicated), or of unaccustomed, threatening self-concept as leaders; many older women's need of continuous supportive encouragement in roles as potential and actual leaders. Discovery at educational conference that women teachers, once rejected for higher position, never applied again, while men took rejection in stride, applied repeatedly. Interviewer's speculation that if women lose by being molded into attitudes of rejected submission, men lose by being molded into attitudes of aggressive competition, suppressing relaxed gentler natures. Family encouragement as important factor in women acquaintances' rise to prominence; higher education opportunity for any child in 1930s, 1940s, given family support. Working-class parents' strong belief in practical value of education; promise during high school they would support her higher education, mortgage of family home to keep their word. Depression period at Queen's ,academic gown fashion to disguise clothing; attitude college was for work first, that education would lead to employment; 5% teaching employment rate of College of Education graduating class. Greater suffering of unemployed graduates in 1970s, raised during affluent period to affluent expectations; reliance during times of stress on inner resources; importance of personal attention and counselling at all levels of society; distinction between constructive and destructive introspection. // Ethical role of human beings to help others, do personal best with talents given. Motivation of interviewer's teacher's college acquaintances by desire for secure lifestyle; subject's un­ comprehending acquaintance with similar undedicated 'time-saver'. Decent security-seeking motivation of WWII veteran students already supporting families. Expanding role of women during WWI, WWII, in neither period including role as social conscience: influence of wartime pressure, forcing practical advances (e.g. medicine), preventing discussion. Priority of discussion in 1960s, often unproductive for reasons of time-killing, indecision, unwillingness to accept responsibility; interviewer's query, are we degenerating or girding our loins? Indictment of affluent society as cause of sloth (in case of acquaintances, 30-40 years old married women bracket); existence of positive inactivity and simple inertia, requiring crisis to stimulate action. Understanding pity for teenagers. Refutation of theory that society only focuses energy constructively during major crises; acquaintance with many constructive, caring teachers (ability to care as result of upbringing), exceptionally creative social movement of stable late 1950s, early 1960s; subject's development of Association of English Teachers' proposal for high school-touring theatre as example (hardworking, successful application to Treasury Board for financial approval of theatre company plans; company tour of dozens of schools in first few years, requests from schools everywhere; growth of programme, 1963-71,till too many requests from Ministry of Education to handle, reassignment to Ontario Arts Council).Interviewer's recent poor treatment at hands of Ontario Arts Council, subject's suspicion this is result of drastic cuts in provincial budgets; lament that cultural programmes are cut first, seen as 'frills'. Canadian fear of invasion during WWII, teacher emergency training camps, school evacuation drills (1942). Shared living quarters with friend Helen since 1942; previous shared living arrangements, solo lifestyle not seen as concomitant of female careerism. Upbringing on Belleville farm (to age seven); parents' removal to Belleville proper to ensure better education for daughter.// TAPE TWO Receipt of Queen's honours degree in three years (one of two students to achieve sufficiently high standing); enrolment at Ontario College of Education, teaching certificates in EngIish and History, Physical and Health Education. Later return to OCE for guidance counselling certificate, frustrating mandatory enrolment in too low a level. Love of 20 years' teaching work in Windsor; promotion to inspector as the right decision, 'broadening and challenging' work with teachers grateful to discuss problems with experienced inspector. Lack of provincial curriculum guidelines prior to 1960s; requests while teaching to share her study outlines with teachers across the province; subject's efforts to correct this under 'Robarts Plan', collection of teachers to reorganize provincial programmes of study, prepare curriculum guidelines for all subjects in all grades in all streams; interest in diversified occupational programme, establishment of flourishing Nursing Assistant's programme, Dental Assistant's programme. Practical disagreement with change in high school educational philosophy toward provision of generalized not specialized education. Great enjoyment of work as first woman inspector in secondary schools for Ontario Department of Education; initiation of successful provincial heads of department conference programme; initiation of curriculum committees, (motivated by teachers; deeply-felt need) leading to first curriculum guidelines (1961-2) for secondary school teachers. Replacement of general inspectors by subject inspectors (English, Science, etc.) and district inspectors (of principals' administrative problems), carried out by brilliant superintendent; happy coverage of thousands of miles as one of six provincial inspectors. Satisfaction of working with teachers who needed and wanted her. Role encouraging women teachers to accept senior positions; women's refusal of inspector's position on grounds of too much travel; appointment (1974) as special assistant to the Deputy Minister of Education and Adviser on women's affairs, actively promoting women into positions of authority, upgrading status of secretarial workers who had been unofficially charged with executive responsibility. Return swing of pendulum from chaotic liberal interpretation of Living and Learning report to teacher demands on Ministry to provide leadership.//Creation by committee of English core content curriculum guidelines (combination of policy statement and resource materials); problem of teachers themselves requiring extra schooling to teach fundamentals of English grammar; John Stephens' Forum article protesting unjust denigration of today's students. Officially retired status, still working for Ministry on special projects; expectation of post­retirement career in volunteer activities; current committee work for Canadian Federation of University Women, based on work for Marty Memorial Fellowship Committee with Jean Royce. DetaiIs of appointment to specially-created position as Special Assistant to Deputy Minister of Education (Ministry's sustained ability to provide subject with fresh challenges); subject's experience as valuable complement to Deputy Minister's. Membership in Fitness Institute. 'Gap' in appointment of women to Senior Ministry positions, after first introduction of experienced women; dread that in current economic recession, new women wiII not be appointed to replace sizeable group of women now retiring. Tremendous personal satisfaction in career success of actors once employed in subject's 'Theatre Hour Company' (Marilyn, Kenneth Walsh, August Schellenberg). Unique perspective brought by women to working matters, distinctive contribution to society. Subject's article stressing that young men must now be led to understand they are entering a new kind of society, based on sexual equality (if they don't comprehend this, they will have trouble).

Munnings, Gladys

MacLeod, Evelyn M., nee Mactavish

File consists of a recording of Evelyn MacLeod. Topics of the conversation include friendship with Jean Royce; shared character as 'book­ pushers'. Interviewer's recent encounter with Mrs. Elizabeth Wallace. Dr. and Mrs. Wallace's careers, Scottish origins; reasons for coming to Canada; renowned hospitality, friendship with subject's family begun in Edmonton (1929). Elizabeth Wallace's literary interests: memorable address to Queen's Faculty Women's Club; original Christmas card story about holly. Early death of Wallace son; Elspeth Wallace. Queen's Faculty Women's Club (originated by Mrs. Wallace c. 1946); character as pleasant meeting-place (not a support body for male faculty); subject's participation. Portrait of Mrs. Wallace by Grant Macdonald. Crowded housing conditions c.1945: widowed subject and daughter saved from houseless situation by Queen's offer of Wardenship (Roselawn Residence). Charming domestic scene of May Chown, Vibert Douglas, anonymous professor readying the residences. Crowded post-war residence conditions: bunkbeds packed into every room, spartan military folding chairs, collapsible dressers, etc.; tiny Warden's rooms without fridge, stove. Wardenship (1946-51 ), LaSalle Barracks women's residence; large veteran population. Male student accommodation; exploitation by greedy, unscrupulous Kingston landladies.//Veteran appreciation of sudden opportunity to attend university; globe-trotting career of Dept. of Veteran Affairs student Ethel Stewart, who 'never got over the awe and mystery and appreciation of the chance to come to college', OVA students' 'mad enthusiasm', predictable number of failures, drop-outs. Marion Robinson, recipient of lODE, Governor General's awards: scholarship student to the Sorbonne, member of Marty Memorial Committee. Female enlistment during WWII as manifestation of Armed Forces fever; female army occupations. Discipline of veteran students as a positive factor in residence life; women residents' sweetness, enthusiasm; Shrove Tuesday pancake party while subject to goods rationing. Alice King's soft-gloved OVA authority with resident students; prominent career with Steinbergs, Canada Packers. OVA medical graduate Jean Zarfas. Friendship between Dr. Wallace and subject's husband in Edmonton. Subject's origins in Parkhill, Ontario. Toronto art school studies in design, 1911-12.//Art school; subject's pleasure in drawing, printwork; minor talent compared with artist grandson David. Parent's agreeability to studies. Semi­serious desire for degree in English literature. Subject's lithography work (c. 1913), interviewer's copy-writing work (c. 1956), both for Eaton's catalogue. Secretarial course, work for Manufacturer's Life, Toronto. Intense desire to see New York; work in New York and Florida. Marriage in Canada; raising family out west. Retained interest in arts: employment as newspaper proofreader, library worker; pleasure writing up and illustrating significant personal memories for own children (charming, almost Dickensian story of kind shopkeeper's tactful reduction of prices to suit innocent children's present-buying purse on Christmas Eve). Oral history compared with text-book history; interviewer's play, abstracted from tale of Crysler's Farm. Awesome number of years spent by teachers acquiring Queen's degrees at summer school. Subject as Warden, Muir House, summer of 1946; ludicrousness of residence restrictions when applied to veterans; termination of wardenship by Queen's loss of LaSalle Barracks property, 1951. Eight-year stint as hotel matron, Deep River; 3 years in Denmark with daughter Chloe; resumption of Queen's career, 1962; post at Ban Righ, terminated by serious illness, 1967.//High spirits, social life in OVA years. Letting up of residence restrictions during 1960s. Reflections on social trend towards greater individual freedom: lack of considerate self-discipline in otherwise splendid young people. Dislike of social sciences jargon, extremes of personal introspection, speeded-up, dehumanized computer age; gratitude she need only face it at a late stage in life, lack of hope for the future. Sense of personal responsibility fostered by Presbyterian upbringing, lost to present generation. Bastardization of the English language; continuing interest of human life despite all.

MacLeod, Evelyn M.

Royce, Jean Isobel

File consists of a recording of Jean Royce. Topics of the conversation include TAPE ONE 'Historical Sketch of the Medical Education of Women', Osier Club booklet, 1916. Family photo (St. Thomas, Ontario). Sister Catherine as violinist, teacher; use of music to assist teaching; studies at McMaster University, work in St. Thomas and Toronto public libraries. Father as industrial foreman, son of farmer; removal from St. Thomas to small outlying farm (retaining job in St. Thomas), 'back to the land' impulse; perfectionist nature (compulsion to pluck every bug from every potato plant). Sister Marion as family scholar; attendance McMaster University, Ontario College of Education; eager family interest in Marion's letters, (first member to leave home); position as secretary, Girls' Work Board for Canada (CGIT). Subject's firm belief in co-education, interest in Kathleen Ryan on convent schooling (see interview 46, Ryan, Kathleen). Family decision to remove Catherine from lessons at St. Thomas convent: nuns' exploitation of Catherine's musical talent, turning her into show-off 'star'. Belief in co-education, derived from Quakers; interest in Society of Friends. Kathleen Ryan's glowing recollection of peaceful Renfrew County convent life. Former rumour of excessive punishment at Kingston convent; warmth of local Roman Catholic Regiopolis school (co-educational), fine character of nuns and mother superior at local Notre Dame convent. Role of co-education in adjusting students for society; former teaching experience at Ontario Ladies' College (Whitby, Ontario).//Diverse OLC student population (Canadian, American, Nigerian, Japanese, at least one Negro). 'Normal' upbringing; complete surprise at birth of younger sister; recollection of female school principal, unusual for the times; liking for schooling. Brother's banking career. Holiday employment as camp leader (mid-1920s) with Neighbourhood Workers (Bolton, Ontario), entertaining tired mothers and babies. Choice of library career, happy employment at St. Thomas Public Library; library work as good background for registrarial career. Mother as church­woman, deeply interested in missions; as remarkable cook, without patience to teach children; informally educated, very knowledgeable, sympathetic, supportive, generous. Attendance at library school; father's death; sister Marion's resignation of CGIT work, MA at University of Toronto, eventual employment with international YWCA, Geneva, as liaison officer with United Nations, New York. Extramural registration at Queen's, summer school attendance 1925, resident enrolment 1927; attraction to Kingston. Employment Ontario Ladies' College; invitation from Queen's Dr. McNeill to assist Registrar Alice King. Undergraduate position as secretary to Professor Min Gordon, Educational Secretary of lODE; men students' attempt to storm Candlelighting Ceremony, intimidated by Min Gordon; Gordon as 'the heart of goodwill and kindness' as subject's employer; maritime origins of Gordon's father, Queen's Principal Gordon; Min Gordon's 'tremendous pre­judices', sense of propriety.// TAPE TWO Min Gordon's inability to accept father's retirement, removal to Gordon House (later Queen's women's residence). Subject's appointment while Assistant Registrar as women's residence Warden, to supplement wretched salary; delightful acquaintance with Gordon House students; anxiety for tardy canoeists (later punished by women's Levana Society disciplinary council) as sole cause for alarm. Non-interfering role as Warden: responsible natures of house president, Levana Society president; residence houses as pleasant, relaxed places; importance of keeping house 'in good fettle' during exams. Pressures of registrarial work (death of former broken-down Registrar Alice King, exhausted by work, pressure): huge correspondence with incoming students; 'constant flow' of students in need of counselling; secretarial appointment (minute-taking, writing-up, correspondence) to Faculty of Arts, Senate, Committee of Departments, Board of Studies. Appointment of Jean Richardson (1936) as first office secretary (later Assistant to the Registrar); Richardson's exceptional competence, ability to lift much of Royce's burden. Horror at Queen's introduction of paper diplomas. Appointment as Registrar, 1933. Happy, cooperative, sociable office staff; Ralph Clench, valued staff character, man­of-all-work, lecturer in Queen's Mathematics Department. Present-day division of Registrar's former decision-making responsibility among various Faculty offices. Counselling individual incoming students on choice of programme as major part of registrarial work; responsibility for university calendar (soliciting programme descriptions from professors, checking descriptions with eagle eye for compliance with university regulations); administration of scholarships as huge workload, responsibiIity (advantage of acquaintance with Miss Gordon's system of developing Canadian Federation of University Women Scholarships). Preoccupation preceding retirement with reconstitution of Queen's Senate.//Cooperation with Senate over scholarships, degree lists. Health breakdown (1965), hospitalization, retirement. Regret she was never offered sabbatical leave. University reorganization at time of retirement, division of academic and administrative bodies; faculty desire in mid-1960s to assume some direct administration; Senate reconstitution, subject's involvement writing papers, evolving committees. Holiday travel, travel as committee convenor for Internaional Federation of University Women. Time given up to advising university staff, preparing papers as member of study group; limited outside social life. Pressure of registrarial work, unwillingness to stay so long in a job again; lack of equivalent job opportunities throughout Depression, 'it worked out very well for a long time'. Astonishment at numbers of freshmen entirely ignorant of what university is, despite Queen's long-established high school liaison programme; subject's province-wide address to high school students, participation in registrar's conferences. Contributions of faculty members George Whalley, Clint Lougheed, to success of university calendar. Academic snobbery of Queen's French Department; subject's continual 'battling' with friend P.G.C. Campbell

Jean Isabel Royce

MacDermaid, Anne, nee Stalker

File consists of a recording of Anne MacDermaid. Topics of the conversation include youthful appointment (1977) as Queen's University Archivist. Farm upbringing, schooling at Napanee CI . Choice of McGill University for undergraduate study (Montreal aunt's offer of free room and board); significance of aunt's generosity before era of magnificent scholarships; parents' moral support, inability to afford costs. Influence of high school teacher Jim Edie in fostering love of history. Undergraduate history major in McGill's newly-opened French­Canadian Studies Institute; history MA (supported by scholar­ ship, residence fellowship) at Carleton University's Institute of Canadian Studies. Specialization in pre-Confederation Canadian history: MA thesis on mutual influence of Church and rebels throughout rebellion in Lower Canada; fascination for conflict of interest suffered by disturbed Bishop Artigue in dealings with rebels (torn between conservative Church attitude and French Canadian sympathies). Fortunate timing of stages in career-marriage development: regular student existence during first year of marriage, seven years' working commitment before bearing first child; confident love of established career, seen as a context for motherhood not as a threat to it; 'natural' growth into senior position through previous Acting Archivist appointments. Sense that younger women now are rejecting careerism, opting for traditional domestic status. Two years' PhD coursework at University of Toronto, abandoned from sense of supersaturation with specialized study ('I could feel my brain starting to dry up'); desire to utilize training in a more vital way, suggestion by Professor Maurice Careless of professional archivism. Fortunate enrolment in archival summer course (co­-sponsored by Ottawa Public Archives, Carleton University, Canadian Historical Association); year's employment in Queen's Political Studies Department, organising Documentation Unit; 8-year position as Queen's Assistant Archivist, eventual appointment as Archivist. Theory that careerwoman profits most when tutored by successful male colleague; 8-year 'intensive internship' under former Archivist Jan Wilson; educational share in management decisions of four-person Archives Council. Factor of male's willingness to share in successful instructional relationship: likelihood of male staff person sharing most with female assistant, seen not as career threat but as stereotype 'hand­maiden'; recent shift among male professionals to sensing women as most threatening competitors. Professional objectivity/subjectivity as a factor of personality and training, not of sex. Employee commitment, loyalty, to Queen's Archives; shared focus on work, satisfaction in Archive successes; personal feeling of rewarding elation when things go well, challenge of problem-solving when trouble threatens. Dual responsibility of Archives to both donors and researchers; stimulating nature of different contacts. Administrative hint from Dr. Deutsch never to pause over a decision once made: work your best, then move on. Queen's as a non-possessive Archives; belief in accessibility of holdings. Comparison of man-to-man and woman-to-woman working relationships: wary mistrustfulness apparent in senior-junior male relationships, frank willingness to instruct common among women. Value of Hidden Voices oral history project; general meeting of Oral History Association of Canada; validity of oral history as complement to (not substitute for) written history. Tendency among teenage women of subject's acquaintance to early matrimony, purely domestic career; contrast of combined career-marriage arrangements of majority of subject's female peers (though employed in traditional female jobs, not necessarily employed at time of marriage). Archivism as development of historians' efforts, not librarians' (Canadian Public Archives predating National Library); dissimilar functions of librarian, archivist (to be good at one is not necessarily to be good at the other). Archivism as a 60% male profession, even today; archival origins in monastic record-keeping; convent record-keeping in Canada; female penchant for keeping diaries; interviewer's speculation how religious male and female record-keeping habits differed, subject's conjectures on role of Church hierarchy in imposing desired record-keeping forms.

MacDermaid, Anne

Gibbs, Frances Elizabeth, nee Porter

File consists of a recording of Frances Gibbs. Topics of the conversation include forty-year association with Queen's Registrar's Office; Position as clerk in 5-person office, 1924. Death of Registrar Alice King. Pleasant though strictly supervised work under Dr. McNeill: no talking or coffee-breaks. Witty, outspoken characters of Charlotte and Kay Whitton. Subject's background: early death of parents; beloved aunt working with VON; secretarial course at KCVI; support of sister through nursing programme, Ottawa Civic Hospital. Sister's experience with VON in poor section of Ottawa, early position as sole stenographer for Carruthers, Fleming Hall professors. Pre-residence boarding house system for Queen's students, restricted to 'the right side of the tracks'. Hen Coop residence. Mother's boarding house for women only. Estimate of young men of the past as more appreciative, 'home-like'; female practice of taking in male boarders for daughters to marry. Subject's annual evaluation of boarding houses for Queen's students. Family connections with Army. Kingston during WWII; organisation of children's lunch facilities. Subject's opinion that women should work in the home; experience as married cook for 14 BC lumbermen. Friendship with Lorne Greene. Stuart Webster. May Chown. Miriam of Queen's. Responsibility for safety of Queen's early exam papers, printed by Jackson Press. Gap in Queen's career, 1945-58. Work presiding at examinations (some in hospital); reading exams aloud to blind student. Lawrence J. Wilson, entertainer extraordinaire; former Queen's University parades; student raids on the Grand Opera House. Amusement tax during WWI.

Gibbs, Frances Elizabeth

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